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有机黄金梨栽培大树改接管理技术

时间:2019-06-24 23:09 作者:sctbgy

  

从山东引进有机黄金梨接穗进行高接换头。大树高接当年抽生的中、长枝上即形成大量腋花芽,次年结果,666.7m2产量达1000~1500kg,进入盛果期后达3000kg以上,平均单果重300~3500g,品质优良,经济效益显著提高。下面为大家介绍有机黄金梨栽培大树改接管理技术:

  1 高接换头技术

  GAOJIESHUDEXUANZE:CHUXIYANGLIWAI,2~30NIANSHENGDEYALI、TAIHUANGLIHECUILIDENGJUNKEJINXINGGAOJIEHUANTOU。YIDISHIPINGTAN、TUCENGSHENHOU、YOUSHUIJIAOTIAOJIAN、SHUTIWANZHENG、SHENGZHANGJIANZHUANGDELIYUANWEIHAO。HUANGJINLIHUAFENSHAO,ZIHUAJIESHINENGLICHA,SHOUFENSHUYINGZHANZAIPEIZHUSHUDE25%ZUOYOU,YINCI,GAOJIELIYUANZHONGYINGBAOLIU1/4DEYALI、XUEHUALIDENGZUOSHOUFENSHU,BUJINXINGGAOJIE。SHOUFENSHUZAILIYUANZHONGYINGJUNYUNFENBU。

  GAOJIESHUGUJIADEQULIU:SHUTIGUJIADEQULIU,ZHIJIEYINGXIANGSHUTIJIEGOUJIZAOQICHANLIANG。GAOJIEYUANZHUYAOCAIYONGKAIXINXING,ZHILIUYUANLAIDEJIBUSANZHUZHI。YISHANGDEZHUZHIJIZHONGXINGANQUANBUQUDIAO。ZHUZHIJIELIUZHANGDUWEIYUANZHUZHIDE1/3,CEZHIGENJUQINGKUANGMEIZHUZHISHANGKELIU2~3GE。DUIYUFUYANGZHI,YOUSHENGZHANGKONGJIANDEKESHIDANGLIUYIBUFEN,YINGXIANGZHUZHISHENGZHANGDEQUANBUSHUCHU。

  GAOJIEFANGFAJIJIAJIESHIQI:GAOJIEFANGFAZHUYAOSHIQIEFUJIE、PIXIAFUJIE、PIXIAJIE。GUGANZHIYONGPIXIAJIE,GUANGTUBUWEIYONGPIXIAFUJIE,ZHIJING2 cmYIXIADEXIZHIYONGQIEFUJIE。JIAJIESHIQIYIBANWEI3~4YUEFENSHUGANLIPIZHIMENGYAQIAN。

  GAOJIEYASHU:YIBANZAIZHUZHI、CEZHIHEFUYANGZHILIANGCEMEIGE4 cmZUOYOUGAOJIE1YA。YIBAN30NIANZUOYOUDESHU,MEIZHUJIE40~50GEYA,GAIJIEHOUSHUGAO1.5~2m;10—20NIANSHENGSHU,MEIZHUJIE30~40YA;10NIANSHENGYIXIADESHUMEIZHUJIE5~20GEYA。

  2 高接后的管理技术

  YOUJIHUANGJINLIGAOJIEHOUDANGNIANNENGFOUZHANGCHUWANGSHENGDEZHITIAO,BINGHUIFUDAOGAIJIEQIANDESHUGUANDAXIAO,SHINENGFOUZAOQIFENGCHANDEGUANJIAN。ZHIYOUZHANGCHUWANGSHENGDEZHITIAO,BINGDUIQIJINXINGXIAJIXIUJIANRUZHAIXIN、LAZHIDENG,CAINENGDADAODI2NIANJIEGUODEMUDE。

  TUFEISHUIGUANLI:GAOJIEYUANQIAN3NIANTURANGGUANLICAIYONGQINGGENGFAHUOSHENGCAOFA。DI1NIANZHUSHIYOUZHIJIFEN20~50kg、YOUJIFEI1~3kg。YIHOUSUICHANLIANGDETIGAO,ZHUNIANZENGJIASHIFEILIANG。GENJULISHUDEFAYUZHUANGKUANGHETURANGSHANGQING,MEINIANJIAOSHUI5~8CI。

  JIASHEWANGJIA:GAOJIEDI1NIANXINSHAOSHENGZHANGWANGSHENG,MENGNIEDUO,YAOJISHICHUMENG。XINSHAOZHANG30 cmZUOYOUSHI,JISHIBANGFU,YIFANGFENGZHE。6YUEXIAXUNZHI7YUEXIAXUNLAZHI,CUJINHUAYAXINGCHENG。ZHU、CEZHIYANZHANGZHIKELAZHI45°ZUOYOU,QIYUZHIKELAZHI60~70°。DONGJIJIASHEWANGJIA,JIANGZHITIAOGUDINGYUWANGJIASHANG,YIFANGFENGZHE,BIANYUGUANLI。

  ZHENGXINGXIUJIAN:YIXIAJIANWEIZHU,DONGJIANWEIFU,DONGJIANDUANJIECUZHI,XIAJIANLAZHICUHUA。HUANGJINLIDEZHANGZHIHUANFANGHOUHUISUO,HENNANZAICHOUSHENGZHANGZHI,YINCI,DONGJIANSHIDUIYOUFAZHANKONGJIANDEZHANGZHIYAOJINXINGDUANJIE,JIANLIUZHITIAOZHANGDUDE4/5,JIANKOULIUBAOMANYA,YICUJINFENZHI,BUCHONGKONGJIAN。HUANGJINLIJIYICHENGHUA,QIELIANXUJIEGUONENGLIQIANG,FENGCHANQIGAOJIESHUYINGSHIDANGJIANCHUBUFENHUAZHI,HUANFANGCHENGHUAHOUYAOJISHIHUISUO。XIAJIANZHUYAOSHILAZHI,YIJIANXIAOXINSHAODESHENGZHANGLIANG,ZENGJIADUANZHISHULIANG,XINGCHENGHUAYA。DUIBEISHANGZHIYOUSHENGZHANGKONGJIANZHELAZHI,GUOMIZESHUQU。TONGGUOLAZHI,DANGNIANKEXINGCHENGDALIANGDEYEHUAYA。HUANGJINLIZHITIAOJIAORUAN,JIEGUOYIXIACHUI,LAZHIJIAODUBUYIGUODA,YIBANLAZHI45°,ZUIDABUCHAOGUO60°。

  SHUXINGCAIYONGZIYOUXIAOGUANSHUCENGXINGZHENGZHI。DINGFHOUJIANGJUDIMIAN40LIMIYIXIADEMENGYAQUANBUMODIAO,WANG40~120LIMIDEZHUGANSHANGXUAN4-5GEWENGE20LIMIZUOYOU,FANGXIANGXIANGHUCUOKAIDEQIANGZHUANGXINSHAO,DAIZHANG60-70LIMISHI,LIU50LIMIZHAIXINCUQIFAZHI、PEIYANGCHENGJIBUZHUZHI,JIAODUBAOCHIZAI45°-50°,QIYUZHITIAOYOUKONGJIANDELAPING,BINGZAIJIBUHUANGE1~2DAO,CUSHICHENGHUAJIEGUO。YINIANZAIJICENGZHUZHISHANGFANG40~160LIMIDEZHONGXINZHUGANSHANGXUAN8~10GEJIANGE15LIMIZUOYOU,CHENGLUOXUANZHUANGCUOLUOZHESHENGDEQIANGZHUANGXINSHAO,DAIZHANGDAO50~60LIMISHI,LIU40LIMIZHAIXIN,CUQIFENZHI,PEIYANGCHENGDAJINXINGJIEGUOZHIZU;GECENGZHUZHISHANGBUPEIYANGCEZHI、ZHIJIEZHESHENG3~5GEDAZHONGXINGJIEGUOZHIZU,DANGZHONGXINZHUGANZHANGDAO300LIMIGAOSHI,JIANGQIYANZHANGTOULAPING,KONGZHIQIYANSHEN,GUANFUYIZHUJIANBUMIJIWEIYI。

  YOUJIHUANGJINLIZHITIAORUAN,DANCHENGXINGKUAI。YOUSHUJIEGUOHOUDI5NIANKAISHIQINGLISHUGUAN,DUIZHONG、XIABUJIJING0.3LIMIYIXIA、ZHIZHANG10LIMIYIXIADERUOZHIQUANBUSHUDIAO:TONGSHISHUDIAOJIAOCHAZHI、ZHONGDIEZHIHEGUOMIZHI,HUISUOBUFENXIRUOJIEGUOZHI。SHENGZHANGJIJIEDUIZHUZHIZHONG、XIABU,YUCHUNJIMENGYAQIANJINXINGKEYA。CUFAZHONGDUANZHI,DUIZHUZHIBEISHANGZHILIWANGZHI,MIZHESHUCHU,YOUKONGJIANZHEGAIBIANQIFANGXIANGLAPING,YINIANRANGQIXINGCHENGHUAYA,BIANCHENGJIEGUOZHIQUN。QITAZHONGYONGZHIZHANGDAO25LIMIZUOYOUSHIJINXINGZHAIXIN,PEIYANGJIEGUOZHIZU。SHENGGUOQIHOU,ZHUZHISHENGZHANGGUOZHANGKAISHIXIACHUI,XIUJIANSHIYAOTAIGAOZHITOUJIAODU,BINGCAIQUDIAO、DINGFANGFA,SHIZHUZHIJIAODUBAOCHIZAI60。ZUOYOU,DUIBEISHANGZHICAIQU“FENGWULIUSAN”DEFANGFA。LAPINGGAIBIANQIFANGXIANG,WENDINGZHONG、DUANGUOZHI、ZHANGGUOZHIYAOZHONGDUANJIE,ZHUZHILIANGCEDEZHONGDUANZHIYIKONGJIANDAXIAO,KESHUAIFANG,DAICHENGHUAHOU,JINXINGQIHUAJIAN。DONGJIXIUJIANHOU,MEI667PINGFANGMILIUZHILIANG8WANGEZUOYOU,ZHANGZHONGDUANZHIBILIYI4:3:13WEIYI,GUOZHIYUZHIYEBIWEI1:4,SHISHUTIJIANZHUANG,JIEGOUHELI,QUNTIZHENGQI、ZHUCIFENMING、DADAOZHIZHIJIANGUANG,YEYEJIANGUANG,SHUGUANNEIFENGGUANGTONGDA,YIBAOCHILIANNIANFENGCHANWENCHAN。

  HUAGUOGUANLI:①HUANGJINLIJIYICHENGHUA,RONGYIJIEGUOGUODUO,YINGYANGESHUHUASHUGUO。SHUHUAZAIHUAXUFENLISHIJINXING,MEI15~20cmLIU1HUAXU,MEIlHUAXULIU2—3DUOBIANHUA,QIYUDEHUAQUANBUSHUDIAO。SHUGUOSHI,MEIGEHUAXULIU1GEGUO。SHENGGUOQISHUMEI666.7m2CHANLIANGKONGZHIZAI3000kgYINEI,DUIDUOYUDEHUAGUOYINGJISHISHUDIAO。②RENGONGSHOUFEN。HUANGJINLISHOUFENYIXINGAO、FENGSHUI、LVBAOSHIHEYALIDENGPINZHONGDEHUNHEFENWEIZUIHAO,YOUTIAOJIANDELIYUANKEYICAIYONGZHEIZHONGHUNHEHUAFEN,YONGRENGONGDIANSHOUHUOYETIPENFENDENGFANGFAJINXINGSHOUFEN。③TAODAI。BUTAODAIDEHUANGJINLIGUOPICUCAO、ZHESEBUJIA,YINGSHIXINGQUANTAODAIZAIPEI。TAODAISHIXUANZEFANGSHUIXINGHETOUQIXINGHAODEGUODAI,ZAIHUAHOU1GEYUENEIWANCHENG。

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